Young adult and usual adult body mass index and multiple myeloma risk: A pooled analysis in the international multiple myeloma consortium (IMMC)

Brenda M. Birmann, Gabriella Andreotti, Anneclaire J. De Roos, Nicola J. Camp, Brian C.H. Chiu, John J. Spinelli, Nikolaus Becker, Veronique Benhaim-Luzon, Parveen Bhatti, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Elizabeth E. Brown, Pierluigi Cocco, Laura Costas, Wendy Cozen, Silvia De Sanjose, Lenka Foretova, Graham G. Giles, Marc Maynadie, Kirsten MoysichAlexandra Nieters, Anthony Staines, Guido Tricot, Dennis Weisenburger, Yawei Zhang, Dalsu Baris, Mark P. Purdue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Background: Multiple myeloma risk increases with higher adult body mass index (BMI). Emerging evidence also supports an association of young adult BMI with multiple myeloma. We undertook a pooled analysis of eight case-control studies to further evaluate anthropometric multiple myeloma risk factors, including young adult BMI. Methods: We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis of usual adult anthropometric measures of 2,318 multiple myeloma cases and 9,609 controls, and of young adult BMI (age 25 or 30 years) for 1,164 cases and 3,629 controls. Results: In the pooled sample, multiple myeloma risk was positively associated with usual adult BMI; risk increased 9% per 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI [OR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14; P = 0.007]. We observed significant heterogeneity by study design (P = 0.04), noting the BMI-multiple myeloma association only for population-based studies (Ptrend= 0.0003). Young adult BMI was also positively associated with multiple myeloma (per 5-kg/m2; OR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.1-1.3; P= 0.0002). Furthermore, we observed strong evidence of interaction between younger and usual adult BMI (Pinteraction <0.0001); we noted statistically significant associations with multiple myeloma for persons overweight (25-<30 kg/m2) or obese (30+ kg/m2) in both younger and usual adulthood (vs. individuals consistently <25 kg/m2), but not for those overweight or obese at only one time period. Conclusions: BMI-associated increases in multiple myeloma risk were highest for individuals who were overweight or obese throughout adulthood. Impact: These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that earlier and later adult BMI may increase multiple myeloma risk and suggest that healthy BMI maintenance throughout life may confer an added benefit of multiple myeloma prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)876-885
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017


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