Antibiotic tolerance is typically associated with a phenotypic change within a bacterial population, resulting in a transient decrease in antibiotic susceptibility that can contribute to treatment failure and recurrent infections. Although tolerant cells may emerge prior to treatment, the stress of prolonged antibiotic exposure can also promote tolerance. Here, we sought to determine how Yersinia pseudotuberculosis responds to doxycycline exposure, to then verify if these gene expression changes could promote doxycycline tolerance in culture and in our mouse model of infection. Only four genes were differentially regulated in response to a physiologically-relevant dose of doxycycline: osmB and ompF were upregulated, tusB and cnfy were downregulated; differential expression also occurred during doxycycline treatment in the mouse. ompF, tusB and cnfy were also differentially regulated in response to chloramphenicol, indicating these could be general responses to ribosomal inhibition. cnfy has previously been associated with persistence and was not a major focus here. We found deletion of the OmpF porin resulted in increased antibiotic accumulation, suggesting expression may promote diffusion of doxycycline out of the cell, while OsmB lipoprotein had a minor impact on antibiotic permeability. Overexpression of tusB significantly impaired bacterial survival in culture and in the mouse, suggesting that tRNA modification by tusB, and the resulting impacts on translational machinery, promotes survival during treatment with an antibiotic classically viewed as bacteriostatic. We believe this may be the first observation of bactericidal activity of doxycycline under physiological conditions, which was revealed by reversing tusB downregulation.