45 Scopus citations


Coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality differs in men and women, leading to the speculation that differences in sex steroids contribute to risk. Controlled clinical trials have shown that estrogen replacement is not cardioprotective in certain women, and recent cross-sectional studies associate low testosterone with a greater incidence of CAD in men. Testosterone has demonstrated effects on insulin resistance, obesity, myocardium, coagulation, inflammation, vasodilation, and endothelial function. Imbalance of sex steroids contributes to adverse cardiac effects in men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-377
Number of pages13
JournalEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2007


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