When, why, and how to recanalize in-stent chronic total occlusions

Benjamin Faurie, Lorenzo Azzalini, Stéphane Rinfret

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In-stent chronic total occlusions (IS CTOs) remain frequent and one of the most difficult and challenging lesion subsets in the field of CTO interventions. In this chapter, we discuss the specificities that make in-stent CTO unique and challenging to reopen, how angiographic appearance can guide our strategy, and how the hybrid algorithm applies to this entity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPercutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion
Subtitle of host publicationThe Hybrid Approach
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9783031054372
ISBN (Print)9783031054365
StatePublished - 23 Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • In-stent
  • Neointimal hyperplasia
  • Reocclusion
  • Restenosis
  • Stent thrombosis


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