More than 40 years after the first reported cases of what then became known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), tremendous progress has been achieved in transforming the disease from almost universally fatal to a chronic manageable condition. Nonetheless, the efforts to find a preventative vaccine or a cure for the underlying infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remain largely unsuccessful. Many challenges intrinsic to the virus characteristics and host response need to be overcome for either goal to be achieved. This article will review the obstacles to an effective HIV cure, specifically the steps involved in the generation of HIV latency, focusing on the role of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which has received less attention compared with the peripheral blood, despite being the largest repository of lymphoid tissue in the human body, and a large site for HIV persistence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-65
Number of pages12
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • HIV
  • mucosal immunology
  • persistence


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