Objective: To test the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with a 3-fold increased risk for vascular disruption among malformations. Study Design: A retrospective case-control study was based upon > 68,000 delivery records at Hutzel Hospital for a 9-year period. Ascertainment was based upon ICD-9 codes for limb defects, abdominal wall defects, and facial clefts. Transverse limb defects and gastroschisis were defined as cases, and nondismption anomalies served as controls. Statistical analysis for history of maternal cocaine use reported during pregnancy was performed by χ2 analysis and the odds ratio determined. Results: A total of 190 cases of limb anomalies, abdominal wall defects, and cleft lips were identified after exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed on the 119 cases informative for maternal cocaine use during pregnancy. Seven of 34 vascular disruption cases had cocaine exposure reported versus 12 of 85 other malformations controls. The odds ratio for cocaine exposure and vascular disruption is 1.58 (95% confidence interval = 0.55-4.47). Conclusion: The putative association of prenatal cocaine exposure and vascular disruption birth defects remains unresolved, but the attributable risk is very likely less than the 3-fold odds ratio previously reported.
- Congenital anomalies
- Vascular disruption birth defects