Variability in XRF-measured tibia lead levels

A. C. Todd, S. Carroll, J. H. Godbold, E. L. Moshier, F. A. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

A few studies have examined the variability in 109Cd-based K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) bone lead measurements from replicate measurements made either at the same time or over a period of time, and one of these studies has shown that the uncertainty in an individual measurement is an underestimate of the standard deviation of replicate measurements. Variability in KXRF tibia lead measurements was assessed from ten cadaver intact legs, from the bare tibiae dissected from nine of these legs, and from four in vivo volunteers. Cadaver legs underwent replicate measurements on multiple occasions. In vivo volunteers underwent single measurements of the left tibia monthly for one year. Average tibia lead levels in the cadaver legs and in vivo volunteers ranged from 6 to 50 and from 6 to 13 μg Pb per g of bone mineral respectively. The factors influencing the standard deviation of replicate measurements were investigated. Both cadaver and in vivo measurements confirmed that the uncertainty in an individual measurement is an underestimate of the standard deviation of replicate measurements, suggesting a methodological deficiency probably shared by most current 109Cd-based K-shell XRF lead measurement systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3737-3748
Number of pages12
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Volume45
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

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