Background: Self-report measures are important tools for assessing adherence to medication. Many of these scales, however, combine the extent of and reasons for nonadherence in one instrument, and have limited reliability and validity. The present study was the first to assess the convergent validity of the self-reported Domains of Subjective Extent of Nonadherence (DOSE-Nonadherence) scale with electronically measured adherence to a single cardiovascular medication. Methods: English- and Spanish-speaking patients evaluated for acute coronary syndrome (N=165; n=68 and n= 97, respectively) were recruited from an urban academic emergency department. Post-hospital discharge, participants were mailed a medication bottle with an electronic cap (eCAP) that recorded bottle openings. At 1 month, participants completed the 3-item DOSE-Nonadherence scale, which assessed the extent to which patients missed, skipped, or did not take the eCAP-monitored medication over the past 7 days. Correlations, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated using eCAP-monitored correct dosing adherence over the same 7-day time period as the reference standard. Results: The most commonly assessed medication was aspirin (70.91%). Correlations between self-reported and electronically monitored adherence were low-to-moderate: English-speaking participants (n=68), r=0.24, p=0.046; Spanish-speaking participants (n=97), r=0.18, p=0.071. Sensitivity was low (0.47 English, 0.28 Spanish) and specificity was moderate (0.77 English, 0.88 Spanish). Conclusions: The DOSE-Nonadherence scale was associated with electronically monitored adherence to a single daily cardiovascular medication in English-speaking participants, but had weak diagnostic properties when using electronic adherence as the reference standard.
- Electronic monitoring
- Medication adherence