The immunoprevention of cancer and cancer recurrence is an important area of concern for the scientific community and society as a whole. Researchers have been working for decades to develop vaccines with the potential to alleviate these health care and economic burdens. So far, vaccines have made more progress in preventing cancer than in eliminating already established cancer. In particular, vaccines targeting oncogenic viruses, such as the human papillomavirus and the hepatitis B virus, are exceptional examples of successful prevention of virus-associated cancers, such as cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer-preventive vaccines targeting nonviral antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens and neoantigens, are also being extensively tested. Here, we review the currently approved preventive cancer vaccines; discuss the challenges in this field by covering ongoing preclinical and clinical human trials in various cancers; and address various issues related to maximizing cancer vaccine benefit.