Utilization of perioperative systemic chemotherapy in upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Greg E. Gin, Nora H. Ruel, Steven V. Kardos, John P. Sfakianos, Edward Uchio, Clayton S. Lau, Bertram E. Yuh

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12 Scopus citations


Introduction Evidence for the use of perioperative chemotherapy (PC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is largely derived from level I evidence for invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). There has been an increase in PC for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, as it has disseminated into clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to not only analyze trends in the utilization of PC in UTUC, but also assess factors associated with its use in a large cancer registry database. Methods The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with UTUC who underwent extirpative surgery from 2004 to 2013. Predictors of receiving PC were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Temporal trends in the utilization of PC were also analyzed using a general analysis of variance linear model. Results From 2004 to 2013, there was significant increase in PC for UTUC from 9.6% to 13.8% (P = 0.0003). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased from 0.7% to 2.1% (P = 0.0018), whereas adjuvant chemotherapy remained relatively stable at 11.3%. Significant predictors of receiving PC on multivariate analysis were private insurance, ureter as the primary site, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated grade, lymphovascular invasion, positive margins, clinical T3 or T4 disease, nodal metastasis, and reporting from an academic research program. Patients who were≥70 years old,>50 miles to treatment center, had tumor in the kidney, or had an increased Charlson-Deyo Score were significantly less likely to receive PC. Conclusions Over the time period studied, there has been an increase in the use of PC, primarily from increased administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Its use is mostly associated with advanced pathologic characteristics. The study also highlights key demographic and socioeconomic differences that can help identify barriers to receiving PC and aid in making improvements in delivery of health care to patients with UTUC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-200
Number of pages9
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017


  • Chemotherapy, adjuvant
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
  • Trends
  • Utilization


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