Background: Food allergies affect up to 8% of children, and milk and egg allergies are the most common triggers. Accurately diagnosing these food allergies is important to prevent allergic reactions and to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions. However, positive skin-prick tests and detectable levels of serum food specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) alone may not be diagnostic for food allergy. Advances in the identification of relevant allergens and the development of recombinant proteins now allow assessment of IgE binding to individual proteins within a food. Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) have the potential to provide more accurate assessments of clinical reactivity to food allergens. Objective: To examine the available data for CRD for milk and egg allergies. Methods: This review discussed studies that evaluated the utility of CRD for guiding decisions about food challenges for milk and egg. Results: Results of studies indicated that CRD may offer increased specificity, but sensitivity was lacking when compared with standard skin-prick testing and measurement of serum food specific IgE levels. Conclusion: The role of CRD in the diagnosis and management of milk and egg allergies is not well established at this time. Further studies are needed to explore the diagnostic value of CRD for milk and egg allergies.