Use of Home-Based Clinical Care and Long-Term Services and Supports Among Homebound Older Adults

Jennifer M. Reckrey, Duzhi Zhao, Robyn I. Stone, Christine S. Ritchie, Bruce Leff, Katherine A. Ornstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Describe use of home-based clinical care and home-based long-term services and supports (LTSS) using a nationally representative sample of homebound older Medicare beneficiaries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants: Homebound, community-dwelling fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries participating in the 2015 National Health and Aging Trends Study (n = 974). Methods: Use of home-based clinical care [ie, home-based medical care, skilled home health services, other home-based care (eg, podiatry)] was identified using Medicare claims. Use of home-based LTSS (ie, assistive devices, home modification, paid care, ≥40 hours/wk of family caregiving, transportation assistance, senior housing, home-delivered meals) was identified via self or proxy report. Latent class analysis was used to characterize patterns of use of home-based clinical care and LTSS. Results: Approximately 30% of homebound participants received any home-based clinical care and about 80% received any home-based LTSS. Latent class analysis identified 3 distinct patterns of service use: class 1, High Clinical with LTSS (8.9%); class 2, Home Health Only with LTSS (44.5%); and class 3, Low Care and Services (46.6% homebound). Class 1 received extensive home-based clinical care, but their use of LTSS did not meaningfully differ from class 2. Class 3 received little home-based care of any kind. Conclusions and Implications: Although home-based clinical care and LTSS utilization was common among the homebound, no single group received high levels of all care types. Many who likely need and could benefit from such services do not receive home-based support. Additional work focused on better understanding potential barriers to accessing these services and integrating home-based clinical care services with LTSS is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1002-1006.e2
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Long-term care
  • aging in Place
  • home- and community-based services
  • home-based medical care


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