Update in Adult Transgender Medicine

Alyxandra Ramsay, Joshua D. Safer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Transgender people often face barriers in health care due to lack of access to care, lack of knowledgeable healthcare professionals, discrimination, and gaps in medical and mental health research. Existing research on transgender health has focused heavily on mental health, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases/infections, and substance abuse. Gender-affirming hormone therapy and/or surgery allows for some alignment of biology and gender identity. Gender-affirming care may offer quality-of-life benefits, which may outweigh modest concerns related to exogenous hormone therapy. The Endocrine Society treatment guidelines were revised in 2017, and this article reviews recent data that might inform a future guideline revision. Future longitudinal research is needed to close the gap in knowledge in the field of transgender medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-124
Number of pages8
JournalAnnual Review of Medicine
StatePublished - 27 Jan 2023


  • Endocrine Society 2017 treatment guidelines
  • Gender-affirming hormone treatment
  • Trans
  • Transfeminine
  • Transmasculine
  • transgender


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