Up-Regulation of S100 Gene Family in Brain Samples of a Subgroup of Individuals with Schizophrenia: Meta-analysis

Anat Shamir, Assif Yitzhaky, Aviv Segev, Vahram Haroutunian, Pavel Katsel, Libi Hertzberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The S100 proteins family is known to affect neuroinflammation and astrocyte activation, which have been suggested to be contributors to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We conducted a systematic meta-analysis of S100 genes differential expression in postmortem samples of patients with schizophrenia vs. healthy controls, following the commonly used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Twelve microarray datasets met the inclusion criteria (overall 511 samples, 253 schizophrenia and 258 controls were analyzed). Nine out of 21 genes were significantly up-regulated or with tendency for up-regulation. A per-sample fold change analysis indicated that the S100 genes’ up-regulation was concentrated in a subgroup of the patients. None of the genes have been found to be down-regulated. ANXA3, which encodes Annexin 3 protein and was associated with neuroinflammation, was up-regulated and positively correlated with the S100 genes’ expression pattern. In addition, astrocytes and endothelial cell markers were significantly correlated with S100A8 expression. S100 correlation with ANXA3 and endothelial cell markers suggests that the up-regulation we detected reflects increased inflammation. However, it might also reflect astrocytes abundance or activation. The fact that S100 proteins were shown to be up-regulated in blood samples and other body fluids of patients with schizophrenia suggests a potential role as biomarkers, which might help disease subtyping, and the development of etiological treatments for immune dysregulation in schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeuroMolecular Medicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Gene expression
  • Meta-analysis
  • S100
  • Schizophrenia


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