Nanodiamonds exhibit exceptional colloidal properties in aqueous media that lead to a wide range of applications in nanomedicine and other fields. Nevertheless, the role of surface chemistry on the hydration of nanodiamonds remains poorly understood. Here, we probed the water hydrogen bond network in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds by infrared, Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies applied in situ in aqueous environment. Aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with hydrogenated, carboxylated, hydroxylated, and polyfunctional surface terminations were compared. A different hydrogen bond network was found in hydrogenated nanodiamonds dispersions compared to dispersions of nanodiamonds with other surface terminations. Although no hydrogen bonds are formed between water and hydrogenated surface groups, a long-range disruption of the water hydrogen bond network is evidenced in hydrogenated nanodiamonds dispersion. We propose that this unusual hydration structure results from electron accumulation at the diamond-water interface. (Figure Presented).