The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 plays an essential role in virus assembly and budding. In this study we reveal that transient VP40 expression results in the release into the culture medium of substantial amounts of soluble monomeric VP40 in addition to the release of virus-like particles containing an oligomeric form of this protein as previously described. We show that VP40 secretion is endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-independent and is not associated with cell death. Soluble VP40 was observed during Ebola virus infection of cells and was also found in the serum of virus-infected animals albeit in lower amounts. Unconventional secretion of VP40 may therefore play a role in Ebola virus pathogenicity.