Ubiquitin proteasome system and glaucoma: A survey of genetics and molecular biology studies supporting a link with pathogenic and therapeutic relevance

Irene Pandino, Sara Giammaria, Gabriele Antonio Zingale, Gloria Roberti, Manuele Michelessi, Massimo Coletta, Gianluca Manni, Luca Agnifili, Alice Verticchio Vercellin, Alon Harris, Francesco Oddone, Diego Sbardella

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Glaucoma represents a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons with subsequent visual field impairment. The disease develops through largely uncharacterized molecular mechanisms, that are likely to occur in different localized cell types, either in the anterior (e.g., trabecular meshwork cells) or posterior (e.g., Muller glia, retinal ganglion cells) segments of the eye. Genomic and preclinical studies suggest that glaucoma pathogenesis may develop through altered ubiquitin (Ub) signaling. Ubiquitin conjugation, referred to as ubiquitylation, is a major post-synthetic modification catalyzed by E1-E2-E3 enzymes, that profoundly regulates the turnover, trafficking and biological activity of the targeted protein. The development of new technologies, including proteomics workflows, allows the biology of ubiquitin signaling to be described in health and disease. This post-translational modification is emerging as a key role player in neurodegeneration, gaining relevance for novel therapeutic options, such as in the case of Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras technology. Although scientific evidence supports a link between Ub and glaucoma, their relationship is still not well-understood. Therefore, this review provides a detailed research-oriented discussion on current evidence of Ub signaling in glaucoma. A review of genomic and genetic data is provided followed by an in-depth discussion of experimental data on ASB10, parkin and optineurin, which are proteins that play a key role in Ub signaling and have been associated with glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101226
JournalMolecular Aspects of Medicine
Volume94
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • E3-ligase
  • Glaucoma
  • Pathogenesis
  • Ubiquitin

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