Clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockade in glioblastoma (GBM) is rare, and we hypothesize that tumor clonal evolution and the immune microenvironment are key determinants of response. Here, we present a detailed molecular characterization of the intratumoral and immune heterogeneity in an IDH wild-type, MGMT-negative GBM patient who plausibly benefited from anti-PD-1 therapy with an unusually long 25-mo overall survival time. We leveraged multiplex immunohistochemistry, RNA-seq, and whole-exome data from the primary tumor and three resected regions of recurrent disease to survey regional tumor-immune interactions, genomic instability, mutation burden, and expression profiles. We found significant regional heterogeneity in the neoantigenic and immune landscape, with a differential T-cell signature among recurrent sectors, a uniform loss of focal amplifications in EGFR, and a novel subclonal EGFR mutation. Comparisons with recently reported correlates of checkpoint blockade in GBM and with TCGA-GBM revealed appreciable intratumoral heterogeneity that may have contributed to a differential PD-1 blockade response.
- Glioblastoma multiforme