Tumor downstaging as an intermediate endpoint to assess the activity of neoadjuvant systemic therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Alberto Martini, Rachel Jia, Bart S. Ferket, Nikhil Waingankar, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Simon J. Crabb, Lauren C. Harshman, Evan Y. Yu, Thomas Powles, Jonathan E. Rosenberg, Sumanta K. Pal, Ulka N. Vaishampayan, Andrea Necchi, N. Peter Wiklund, Reza Mehrazin, Madhu Mazumdar, John P. Sfakianos, Matthew D. Galsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Achieving a pathologic complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been associated with improved overall survival (OS). This study was aimed at evaluating the impact of pathologic downstaging (pDS; ie, a pT stage at least 1 stage lower than the pre-NAC cT stage) on the OS of patients with MIBC treated with NAC. Methods: The Retrospective International Study of Cancers of the Urothelial Tract (RISC) and the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were queried for cT2-4N0M0 patients treated with NAC. A multivariable Cox model including either pDS or pCR was generated. A nested model was built to evaluate the added value of pDS (excluding patients achieving a pCR) to a model including pCR alone. C indices were computed to assess discrimination. NCDB was used for validation. The treatment effect of NAC versus cystectomy alone in achieving pDS was estimated through an inverse probability–weighted regression adjustment. Results: Overall, 189 and 2010 patients from the RISC and NCDB cohorts, respectively, were included; pDS and pCR were achieved by 33% and 35% and by 20% and 15% in RISC and NCDB, respectively. In both data sets, pDS and pCR were associated with better OS and C indices. Adding pDS excluding pCR to the model with pCR fit the data better (likelihood ratio, P =.019 for RISC and P <.001 for NCDB), and it yielded better discrimination (incremental C index, 4.2 for RISC and 1.6 for NCDB). The treatment effect of NAC in achieving pDS was 2.07-fold (P <.001) in comparison with cystectomy alone. Conclusions: A decrease of at least 1 stage from the cT stage to the pT stage is associated with improved OS in patients with MIBC treated with NAC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3155-3163
Number of pages9
JournalCancer
Volume125
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2019

Keywords

  • bladder cancer
  • neoadjuvant chemotherapy
  • overall survival
  • radical cystectomy
  • urothelial cancer

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