Trends in and outcomes associated with obstructive sleep apnea during deliveries in the United States, 2000–2019

Anna M. Frappaolo, Alice H. Linder, Timothy Wen, Maria Andrikopoulou, Whitney A. Booker, Mary E. D'Alton, Alexander M. Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Population-level data on obstructive sleep apnea among pregnant women in the United States and associated risk for adverse outcomes during delivery may be of clinical importance and public health significance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess trends in and outcomes associated with obstructive sleep apnea during delivery hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: This repeated cross-sectional study analyzed delivery hospitalizations using the National Inpatient Sample. Temporal trends in obstructive sleep apnea were analyzed using joinpoint regression to estimate the average annual percentage change with 95% confidence intervals. Survey-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between obstructive sleep apnea and mechanical ventilation or tracheostomy, acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, peripartum hysterectomy, pulmonary edema/heart failure, stillbirth, and preterm birth. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2019, an estimated 76,753,013 delivery hospitalizations were identified, of which 54,238 (0.07%) had a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. During the study period, the presence of obstructive sleep apnea during delivery hospitalizations increased from 0.4 to 20.5 cases per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations (average annual percentage change, 20.6%; 95% confidence interval, 19.1–22.2). Clinical factors associated with obstructive sleep apnea included obesity (4.3% of women without and 57.7% with obstructive sleep apnea), asthma (3.2% of women without and 25.3% with obstructive sleep apnea), chronic hypertension (2.0% of women without and 24.5% with obstructive sleep apnea), and pregestational diabetes mellitus (0.9% of women without and 10.9% with obstructive sleep apnea). In adjusted analyses accounting for obesity, other clinical factors, demographics, and hospital characteristics, obstructive sleep apnea was associated with increased odds of mechanical ventilation or tracheostomy (adjusted odds ratio, 21.9; 95% confidence interval, 18.0–26.7), acute respiratory distress syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.4–6.5), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6–1.7), stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.4), pulmonary edema/heart failure (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.9–4.7), peripartum hysterectomy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.23), and preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.2). CONCLUSION: Obstructive sleep apnea diagnoses are increasingly common in the obstetrical population and are associated with a range of adverse obstetrical outcomes during delivery hospitalizations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100775
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology MFM
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • maternal outcomes
  • obesity
  • obstructive sleep apnea


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