Treatment patterns in US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement

Jennie H. Best, Amanda M. Kong, Emma Kaplan-Lewis, Otis W. Brawley, Rachel Baden, James L. Zazzali, Karen S. Miller, James Loveless, Krutika Jariwala-Parikh, Shalini V. Mohan

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11 Scopus citations


This study describes the baseline characteristics and treatment patterns of US patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary involvement. Patients hospitalized with pulmonary involvement due to COVID-19 (first hospitalization) were identified in the IBM Explorys® electronic health records database. Demographics, baseline clinical characteristics, and in-hospital medications were assessed. For evaluation of in-hospital medications, results were stratified by race, geographic region, age, and month of admission. Of 6564 hospitalized patients with COVID-19-related pulmonary involvement, 50.4% were male, and mean (SD) age was 62.6 (16.4) years; 75.2% and 23.6% of patients were from the South and Midwest, respectively, and 50.2% of patients were African American. Compared with African American patients, a numerically higher proportion of White patients received dexamethasone (19.7% vs. 31.8%, respectively), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 27.1% vs. 34.9%), bronchodilators (19.8% vs. 29.5%), and remdesivir (9.3% vs. 21.0%). Numerically higher proportions of White patients than African American patients received select medications in the South but not in the Midwest. Compared with patients in the South, a numerically higher proportion of patients in the Midwest received dexamethasone (20.1% vs. 34.5%, respectively), NSAIDs (19.6% vs. 55.7%), bronchodilators (15.9% vs. 41.3%), and remdesivir (10.6% vs. 23.1%). Inpatient use of hydroxychloroquine decreased over time, whereas the use of dexamethasone and remdesivir increased over time. Among US patients predominantly from the South and Midwest hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement, differences were seen in medication use between different races, geographic regions, and months of hospitalization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5367-5375
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • SARS coronavirus
  • antiviral agents
  • cytokine/chemokine
  • disease control
  • immune responses
  • immunodulators
  • inflammation
  • respiratory tract


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