Treatment Parameters and Outcome in 680 Treatments of Internal Radiation With Resin 90Y-Microspheres for Unresectable Hepatic Tumors

Andrew S. Kennedy, Patrick McNeillie, William A. Dezarn, Charles Nutting, Bruno Sangro, Dan Wertman, Michael Garafalo, David Liu, Douglas Coldwell, Michael Savin, Tobias Jakobs, Steven Rose, Richard Warner, Dennis Carter, Stephen Sapareto, Subir Nag, Seza Gulec, Allison Calkins, Vanessa L. Gates, Riad Salem

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201 Scopus citations


Purpose: Radioembolization (RE) using 90Y-microspheres is an effective and safe treatment for patients with unresectable liver malignancies. Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is rare after RE; however, greater understanding of radiation-related factors leading to serious liver toxicity is needed. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of radiation parameters was performed. All data pertaining to demographics, tumor, radiation, and outcomes were analyzed for significance and dependencies to develop a predictive model for RILD. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events Version 3.0 scale. Results: A total of 515 patients (287 men; 228 women) from 14 US and 2 EU centers underwent 680 separate RE treatments with resin 90Y-microspheres in 2003-2006. Multifactorial analyses identified factors related to toxicity, including activity (GBq) Selective Internal Radiation Therapy delivered (p < 0.0001), prescribed (GBq) activity (p < 0.0001), percentage of empiric activity (GBq) delivered (p < 0.0001), number of prior liver treatments (p < 0.0008), and medical center (p < 0.0001). The RILD was diagnosed in 28 of 680 treatments (4%), with 21 of 28 cases (75%) from one center, which used the empiric method. Conclusions: There was an association between the empiric method, percentage of calculated activity delivered to the patient, and the most severe toxicity, RILD. A predictive model for RILD is not yet possible given the large variance in these data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1494-1500
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2009


  • Dosimetry
  • Liver
  • Microsphere
  • Radioembolization
  • Selective Internal Radiation Therapy
  • Y


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