Forty patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in first relapse were treated at eight member institutions of the Leukemia Intergroup with a 10‐day continuous intravenous infusion of cytosine arabinoside and an anthracycline antibiotic administered on days 1, 2, and 3. Twenty of the 40 patients achieved a complete response. Seven of the patients who did not enter remission were drug‐resistant failures, while 13 patients failed to enter remission for reasons other than persistent leukemia. Pretreatment parameters such as age, presence of infection, platelet count, and liver function tests were important predictors of survival. The percent bone marrow cellularity, the percent circulating abnormal (leukemic) cells, and the height of the white blood cell count prior to treatment were helpful in distinguishing patients who would enter remission from those who would not enter remission because of persistent leukemia.
- cytosine arabinoside/anthracycline
- relapsed ANLL