Treatment of focal dystonias with botulinum neurotoxin

Mark Hallett, Reiner Benecke, Andrew Blitzer, Cynthia L. Comella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


This is a review on the use of injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonias. Disorders covered include cranial dystonia, cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, and focal hand dystonia. Considered are clinical aspects, alternative treatment strategies and principles of use of botulinum toxin injections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)628-633
Number of pages6
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Botulinum toxin
  • Cervical dystonia
  • Cranial dystonia
  • Focal dystonia
  • Focal hand dystonia
  • Spasmodic dysphonia


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