We examined relationships among transformational leadership, employee identification with leader, innovative climate, and employee creativity in a diverse sample of 212 employees and their immediate supervisors from 71 workgroups representing 55 organizations. Results from multi-level linear modeling analyses indicated that transformational leadership was not significantly related with employee creativity, nor were the two way interactions of transformational leadership × identification with leader and transformation leadership × innovative climate. However, the three-way interaction of transformational leadership, employee identification with leader, and innovative climate was associated with employee creativity. We discuss the implications of these findings for practice and theory.
- Identification with the leader
- Organizational climate
- Personal identification
- Substitutes for leadership
- Transformational leadership