Opioid use disorder (OUD) looms as one of the most severe medical crises facing society. More effective therapeutics will require a deeper understanding of molecular changes supporting drug-taking and relapse. Here, we develop a brain reward circuit-wide atlas of opioid-induced transcriptional regulation by combining RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and heroin self-administration in male mice modeling multiple OUD-relevant conditions: acute heroin exposure, chronic heroin intake, context-induced drug-seeking following abstinence, and relapse. Bioinformatics analysis of this rich dataset identified numerous patterns of transcriptional regulation, with both region-specific and pan-circuit biological domains affected by heroin. Integration of RNA-seq data with OUDrelevant behavioral outcomes uncovered region-specific molecular changes and biological processes that predispose to OUD vulnerability. Comparisons with human OUD RNA-seq and genome-wide association study data revealed convergent molecular abnormalities and gene candidates with high therapeutic potential. These studies outline molecular reprogramming underlying OUD and provide a foundational resource for future investigations into mechanisms and treatment strategies.