Transcatheter aortic valve replacement results in improvement of pulmonary function in patients with severe aortic stenosis

Richard C. Gilmore, Vinod H. Thourani, Hanna A. Jensen, Jose Condado, José Nilo G. Binongo, Eric L. Sarin, Chandan M. Devireddy, Bradley Leshnower, Kreton Mavromatis, Amjad Syed, Robert A. Guyton, Peter C. Block, Amy Simone, Patricia Keegan, James Stewart, Mohammad Rajaei, Brian Kaebnick, Stamatios Lerakis, Vasilis C. Babaliaros

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Abstract

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been identified as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We hypothesized that a portion of pulmonary dysfunction in patients with severe aortic stenosis may be of cardiac origin, and has potential to improve after TAVR. Methods A retrospective analysis was made of consecutive TAVR patients from April 2008 to October 2014. Of patients who had pulmonary function testing and serum B-type natriuretic peptide data available before and after TAVR, 58 were found to have COPD (26 mild, 14 moderate, and 18 severe). Baseline variables and operative outcomes were explored along with changes in pulmonary function. Multiple regression analyses were performed to adjust for preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and glomerular filtration rate. Results Comparison of pulmonary function testing before and after the procedure among all COPD categories showed a 10% improvement in forced vital capacity (95% confidence interval: 4% to 17%) and a 12% improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (95% confidence interval: 6% to 19%). There was a 29% decrease in B-type natriuretic peptide after TAVR (95% confidence interval: -40% to -16%). An improvement of at least one COPD severity category was observed in 27% of patients with mild COPD, 64% of patients with moderate COPD, and 50% of patients with severe COPD. There was no 30-day mortality in any patient group. Conclusions In patients with severe aortic stenosis, TAVR is associated with a significant improvement of pulmonary function and B-type natriuretic peptide. After TAVR, the reduction in COPD severity was most evident in patients with moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2167-2173
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Volume100
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

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