Toward Precision Medicine in ADHD

Jan Buitelaar, Sven Bölte, Daniel Brandeis, Arthur Caye, Nina Christmann, Samuele Cortese, David Coghill, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Markus Gleitz, Corina U. Greven, Sandra Kooij, Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Nanda Rommelse, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Luis Augusto Rohde, Emily Simonoff, Mark Stein, Benedetto VitielloYanki Yazgan, Michael Roesler, Manfred Doepfner, Tobias Banaschewski

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition for which curative treatments are lacking. Whilst pharmacological treatments are generally effective and safe, there is considerable inter-individual variability among patients regarding treatment response, required dose, and tolerability. Many of the non-pharmacological treatments, which are preferred to drug-treatment by some patients, either lack efficacy for core symptoms or are associated with small effect sizes. No evidence-based decision tools are currently available to allocate pharmacological or psychosocial treatments based on the patient's clinical, environmental, cognitive, genetic, or biological characteristics. We systematically reviewed potential biomarkers that may help in diagnosing ADHD and/or stratifying ADHD into more homogeneous subgroups and/or predict clinical course, treatment response, and long-term outcome across the lifespan. Most work involved exploratory studies with cognitive, actigraphic and EEG diagnostic markers to predict ADHD, along with relatively few studies exploring markers to subtype ADHD and predict response to treatment. There is a critical need for multisite prospective carefully designed experimentally controlled or observational studies to identify biomarkers that index inter-individual variability and/or predict treatment response.

Original languageEnglish
Article number900981
JournalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
StatePublished - 6 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • biomarker
  • heterogeneity
  • inter-individual variability
  • precision medicine


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