Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is perhaps the most common inflammatory skin disorder worldwide, with an increasing incidence in developed countries. The mainstay treatment for patients with AD is topical therapies, which are used not only by the mild patients but also by the moderate-to-severe patients, in conjunction with systemic treatment. While topical steroids and calcineurin antagonists are widely used, these are associated with long-term cutaneous adverse effects (AEs) or a black box warning, preventing their chronic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of new and upcoming topical therapies currently in development and undergoing clinical trials, as well as their safety and efficacy profiles, and discuss current topicals used in the management of AD. Expert opinion: AD is a heterogeneous disease with complex pathophysiology. Treatments available to date for AD provide disease control; however, patients struggle to find an optimized therapeutic regimen they may use long term and without severe effects. Novel therapies are currently under investigation, with the hope of shifting the paradigm of AD management from symptom control to disease eradication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-382
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 3 Apr 2019


  • Atopic dermatitis
  • crisaborole
  • tapinarof
  • topical calcineurin inhibitors
  • topical corticosteroids
  • topical janus kinase inhibitors
  • topical phosphodiaesterase-4 inhibitors


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