Time-Restricted Eating and Bone Health: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

Rubén Fernández-Rodríguez, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Bruno Bizzozero-Peroni, Valentina Díaz-Goñi, Eva Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, María José Guzmán-Pavón, Ana Belén Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana Torres-Costoso

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Time-restricted eating (TRE) has emerged as a dietary strategy that restricts food consumption to a specific time window and is commonly applied to facilitate weight loss. The benefits of TRE on adipose tissue have been evidenced in human trials and animal models; however, its impact on bone tissue remains unclear. To systematically synthesize and examine the evidence on the impact of TRE on bone health (bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone turnover factors), PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases were systematically explored from inception to 1 October 2023 searching for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at determining the effects of TRE on bone health in adults (≥18 years). The Cochrane Handbook and the PRISMA recommendations were followed. A total of seven RCTs involving 313 participants (19 to 68 years) were included, with an average length of 10.5 weeks (range: 4 to 24 weeks). Despite the significant weight loss reported in five out of seven studies when compared to the control, our meta-analysis showed no significant difference in BMD (g/cm2) between groups (MD = −0.009, 95% CI: −0.026 to 0.009, p = 0.328; I2 = 0%). BMC and bone turnover markers between TRE interventions and control conditions were not meta-analyzed because of scarcity of studies (less than five). Despite its short-term benefits on cardiometabolic health, TRE did not show detrimental effects on bone health outcomes compared to those in the control group. Nevertheless, caution should be taken when interpreting our results due to the scarcity of RCTs adequately powered to assess changes in bone outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number876
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • bone mineral content
  • bone mineral density
  • bone turnover marker
  • diet
  • meta-analysis
  • systematic review
  • time-restricted eating


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