The resurgence of immunotherapy as an effective anticancer strategy has been coupled with more mature understandings of the underlying immune pathways and the development of novel immune checkpoint targets. The clinical development of antibodies first directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4, and later against program death 1, achieved durable disease control in a subset of patients across a large number of tumor types. Previous work demonstrates that targeting the programmed death 1 pathway alone does not result in complete restoration of T cell function and in some cancers, targeting this axis does not restore T cell function at all, suggesting a need to identify other molecules and inhibitory pathways that are involved in T cell exhaustion. In a comprehensive immune profiling study of patients with bladder cancer, we demonstrate T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule and T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain as possible targets as perhaps monotherapy or in combination with other immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-406
Number of pages4
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


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