Three-dimensional printing and craniosynostosis surgery

Sauson Soldozy, Kaan Yağmurlu, Daniel K. Akyeampong, Rebecca Burke, Peter F. Morgenstern, Robert F. Keating, Jonathan S. Black, John A. Jane, Hasan R. Syed

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Overview: The goal of this study was to review the current application and status of three-dimensional printing for craniosynostosis surgery. Methods: A literature review was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE databases for studies published between 2010 and 2020. All studies demonstrating the utilization of three-dimensional printing for craniosynostosis surgery were included. Results: A total of 15 studies were ultimately selected. This includes studies demonstrating novel three-dimensional simulation and printing workflows, studies utilizing three-dimensional printing for surgical simulation, as well as case reports describing prior experiences. Conclusion: The incorporation of three-dimensional printing into the domain of craniosynostosis surgery has many potential benefits. This includes streamlining surgical planning, developing patient-specific template guides, enhancing residency training, as well as aiding in patient counseling. However, the current state of the literature remains in the validation stage. Further study with larger case series, direct comparisons with control groups, and prolonged follow-up times is necessary before more widespread implementation is justified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2487-2495
Number of pages9
JournalChild's Nervous System
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • 3D printing
  • Computer-assisted
  • Craniofacial
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Resident education
  • Three-dimensional
  • Virtual surgery


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