The Sea Cucumber Thyonella gemmata Contains a Low Anticoagulant Sulfated Fucan with High Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Actions against Wild-Type and Delta Variants

Rohini Dwivedi, Marwa Farrag, Poonam Sharma, Deling Shi, Anter A. Shami, Sandeep K. Misra, Priya Ray, Jayanti Shukla, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Joshua S. Sharp, Ritesh Tandon, Vitor H. Pomin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

In this work, we isolated two new sulfated glycans from the body wall of the sea cucumber Thyonella gemmata: one fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (TgFucCS) (17.5 ± 3.5% kDa) and one sulfated fucan (TgSF) (383.3 ± 2.1% kDa). NMR results showed the TgFucCS backbone composed of [→3)-β-N-acetylgalactosamine-(1→4)-β-glucuronic acid-(1→] with 70% 4-sulfated and 30% 4,6-disulfated GalNAc units and one-third of the GlcA units decorated at the C3 position with branching α-fucose (Fuc) units either 4-sulfated (65%) or 2,4-disulfated (35%) and the TgSF structure composed of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of [→3)-α-Fuc2,4S-(1→2)-α-Fuc4S-(1→3)-α-Fuc2S-(1→3)-α-Fuc2S-(1→]n. Inhibitory properties of TgFucCS and TgSF were investigated using SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus coated with S-proteins of the wild-type (Wuhan-Hu-1) or the delta (B.1.617.2) strains and in four different anticoagulant assays, comparatively with unfractionated heparin. Molecular binding to coagulation (co)-factors and S-proteins was investigated by competitive surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the two sulfated glycans tested, TgSF showed significant anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against both strains together with low anticoagulant properties, indicating a good candidate for future studies in drug development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1463-1475
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Natural Products
Volume86
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 23 Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes

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