A growing body of experimental data suggests that microbes in the gut influence behavior and can alter brain physiology and neurochemistry. Although promising, researchers are only starting to understand the potential of the gut microbiota for use in neurological disease. Recent evidence demonstrated that gastrointestinal activities are linked to mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, and most recently, cognitive functions in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Studies from our group and others are uncovering new evidence suggesting that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the metabolism and bioavailability of certain dietary compounds and synthetic drugs. Based on this evidence, this review article will discuss the implications of the gut microbiota in mechanisms of bioavailability and biotransformation with an emphasis on dietary polyphenol compounds. This will be followed by a survey of ongoing innovative research identifying the ability of individual gut bacteria to enhance the bioavailability of gut-derived, brain-penetrating, bioactive polyphenol metabolites that ultimately influence mechanisms associated with the promotion of resilience against psychological and cognitive impairment in response to stress. Lastly, current research initiatives aimed at promoting the generation of brain bioactive polyphenol metabolites by specialized gut microbes will be discussed, specifically the use of gnotobiotic mice to develop bioengineered second generation probiotics. We propose that leveraging the gut microbial ecosystem to generate brain targeted bioactive metabolites from dietary polyphenols can attenuate lifestyle risk factors and promote resilience against age-related cognitive decline.