The role of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection in the management of high-risk prostate cancer: A systematic review

Bertram Yuh, Walter Artibani, Axel Heidenreich, Simon Kimm, Mani Menon, Giacomo Novara, Ashutosh Tewari, Karim Touijer, Timothy Wilson, Kevin C. Zorn, Scott E. Eggener

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context The role of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for men with high-risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa) has not been well studied. Objective To evaluate the indications for surgical treatment, technical aspects such as nerve sparing (NS) and lymph node dissection (LND), and perioperative outcomes of men with HR PCa treated with RARP. Evidence acquisition A systematic expert review of the literature was performed in October 2012, searching the Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Studies with a precise HR definition, robotic focus, and reporting of perioperative and pathologic outcomes were included. Evidence synthesis A total of 12 papers (1360 patients) evaluating RARP in HR PCa were retrieved. Most studies (67%) used the D'Amico classification for defining HR. Biopsy Gleason grade 8-10 was the most frequent HR identifier (61%). Length of follow-up ranged from 9.7 to 37.7 mo. Incidence of NS varied, although when performed did not appear to compromise oncologic outcomes. Extended LND (ELND) revealed positive nodes in up to a third of patients. The rate of symptomatic lymphocele after ELND was 3%. Overall mean operative time was 168 min, estimated blood loss was 189 ml, length of hospital stay was 3.2 d, and catheterization time was 7.8 d. The 12-mo continence rates using a no-pad definition ranged from 51% to 95% with potency recovery ranging from 52% to 60%. The rate of organ-confined disease was 35%, and the positive margin rate was 35%. Three-year biochemical recurrence-free survival ranged from 45% to 86%. Conclusions Although the use of RARP for HR PCa has been relatively limited, it appears safe and effective for select patients. Short-term results are similar to the literature on open radical prostatectomy. Variability exists for NS and the template of LND, although ELND improves staging and removes a higher number of metastatic nodes. Further study is required to assess long-term outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-927
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Urology
Volume65
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • High risk
  • Lymph node dissection
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostatectomy
  • Robotic

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