The role of percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty in patients with cardiogenic shock and critical aortic stenosis

Pedro R. Moreno, Ik Kyung Jang, John B. Newell, Peter C. Block, Igor F. Palacios

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Objectives. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty in patients with cardiogenic shock due to severe aortic stenosis and associated major comorbid conditions and to establish predictors of survival. Background. The prognosis for patients in cardiogenic shock with severe aortic stenosis is poor. Aortic valve replacement can be lifesaving but the presence of multiorgan failure precludes these patients from operation. Percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty has been used in these patients with short-term improvement and could be an alternative therapeutic option. Methods. Of 310 patients undergoing percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty, 21 were in cardiogenic shock and were included in this study. All 21 patients had associated major comorbid conditions at the time of presentation. Results. After percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty, systolic aortic pressure increased from 77 ± 3 (mean ± SEM) to 116 ± 8 mm Hg (p = 0.0001); aortic valve area increased from 0.48 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.06 cm2 (p = 0.0001); and cardiac index increased from 1.84 ± 0.13 to 2.24 ± 0.15 liters/min per m2 (p = 0.06). Nine patients died in the hospital, two during the procedure and seven after successful percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty (five from multiorgan failure). Five patients had vascular complications. Stroke, cholesterol emboli and aortic regurgitation requiring aortic valve replacement occurred in one patient each. Twelve patients (57%) survived and were followed up for 15 ± 6 months; five patients subsequently died. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a 38 ± 11% survival rate at 27 months. The only predictor for longer survival rate was the postprocedure cardiac index. Conclusions. 1) Emergency percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty can be performed successfully as a lifesaving procedure. 2) Morbidity and mortality remain high despite successful percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty. 3) For nonsurgical candidates, percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty may be the only therapeutic alternative.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1075
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 1994
Externally publishedYes


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