The Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 (BMPR2) and the Prospects of Utilizing Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Modeling

Anichavezhi Devendran, Sumanta Kar, Rasheed Bailey, Maria Giovanna Trivieri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), causing right ventricular hypertrophy and ultimately death from right heart failure. Heterozygous mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) are linked to approximately 80% of hereditary, and 20% of idiopathic PAH cases, respectively. While patients carrying a BMPR2 gene mutation are more prone to develop PAH than non-carriers, only 20% will develop the disease, whereas the majority will remain asymptomatic. PAH is characterized by extreme vascular remodeling that causes pulmonary arterial endothelial cell (PAEC) dysfunction, impaired apoptosis, and uncontrolled proliferation of the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). To date, progress in understanding the pathophysiology of PAH has been hampered by limited access to human tissue samples and inadequacy of animal models to accurately mimic the pathogenesis of human disease. Along with the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, there has been an increasing interest in using this tool to develop patient-specific cellular models that precisely replicate the pathogenesis of PAH. In this review, we summarize the currently available approaches in iPSC-based PAH disease modeling and explore how this technology could be harnessed for drug discovery and to widen our understanding of the pathophysiology of PAH.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3823
JournalCells
Volume11
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2
  • disease modeling
  • induced pluripotent stem cell
  • pulmonary arterial endothelial cells
  • pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells
  • pulmonary vascular resistance
  • vascular remodeling

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