The real-world burden of adults with major depressive disorder with moderate or severe insomnia symptoms in the United States

Kruti Joshi, M. Janelle Cambron-Mellott, Halley Costantino, Alanna Pfau, Manish K. Jha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Although insomnia is a common core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), the burden of moderate-to-severe insomnia symptoms in patients with MDD is not well-understood. This study quantified the clinical, patient-centric, and economic burden of adults with MDD with moderate-to-severe insomnia symptoms (MDDIS) compared to adults with MDD with no-to-mild insomnia symptoms (other-MDD) and adults without MDD. Methods: Data from 2019 US National Health and Wellness Survey identified adults self-reporting physician-diagnosed depression, stratified by insomnia status (MDDIS: Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] score ≥15; other-MDD: ISI score <15), and adults not reporting depression (non-MDD). Other-MDD and non-MDD were matched 2:1 to MDDIS on age/sex/race. Matched bivariate analyses examined differences in health-related outcomes by depression-insomnia status. Results: Of 74,994 survey respondents, 2045 (2.7%) were classified as MDDIS, 8220 (11.0%) as other-MDD, and 59,859 (79.8%) as non-MDD. MDDIS respondents (vs other-MDD and non-MDD) reported greater depression severity, anxiety severity, daytime sleepiness, activity impairment, direct costs, and costs due to work productivity impairments, and lower mental and physical functioning (all P < 0.05). Limitations: Depression diagnosis was not based on clinical/diagnostic interview; causal relationships cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional design. Conclusions: Among US adults with MDD, presence of moderate-to-severe insomnia symptoms is associated with additional burden and notable impairments across several health outcomes versus those with MDD but no-to-minimal insomnia symptoms and general population without MDD. This study highlights the burden of MDDIS and the need for better identification and management of moderate-to-severe insomnia symptoms in adults with MDD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)698-706
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2023


  • Clinical burden
  • Depression
  • Economic burden
  • Insomnia
  • Major depressive disorder with insomnia symptoms
  • Patient-centric burden


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