Solid tumors, beyond mere accumulation of cancer cells, form a complex ecosystem consisting of normal epithelial cells, fibroblasts, blood and lymphatic vessels, structural components, and infiltrating hematopoietic cells including myeloid and lymphoid elements that impact tumor growth, tumor spreading, and clinical outcome. The composition of the immune microenvironment is diverse, including various populations of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, neutrophils, or macrophages. The immune contexture describes the density, location, and organization of these immune cells within solid tumors. In lung cancer, which is the deadliest type of cancer, and particularly in non-small cell lung cancer, itsmost prevalent form, reports have described someof the interactions betweenthe tumor and the host. These data, in addition to articles on various types of tumors, provide a greater understanding of the tumor-host microenvironment interaction and stimulate the development of prognostic and predictive biomarkers, the identification of novel target antigens for therapeutic intervention, and the implementation of tools for long-term management of patients with cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-390
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2015


  • Immunotherapy
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor immunology


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