Serologic and immunochemical assays have shown that the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CR11-351 recognizes a determinant expressed by HLA-A2 and A28 alloantigens. The MoAb CR1 1-351 blocks the cytotoxicity of some, but not all, anti-HLA-A2 and anti-HLA-A28 alloantisera tested. These findings suggest that each allospecificity consists of several determinants, only some of which are spatially close to the determinant defined by the MoAb CR11-351. The binding of the MoAb CR11-351 to HLA-A2 lymphoid cells is not effected by their precoating with the HLA-A, B-specific MoAb CR10-214, Q6/64, and 6/31 but is enhanced by at least 20% by the MoAb CR10-131, CR10-402 and by the β2-m-specific MoAb NAMB-1. The MoAb CR11-351 did not react with one of four HLA-A2 variants which are indistinguishable with conventional anti-HLA-A2 sera, but are not recognized by "normal" HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T cells and possess structurally distinct HLA-A2 heavy chains. Therefore the MoAb CR11-351 provides the first evidence of a serologically detectable difference between the four HLA-A2 variants and "normal" HLA-A2 antigens.