Chronic dysfunction, disabilities, and complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, osteoporosis and certain cancers, among other burdens, emerge and accelerate in midlife women. Previously in part l, we described the clinical and laboratory research findings that more readily explain and clarify the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms driving these clinical burdens, including new findings on how in particular visceral obesity and the emergence and acceleration of various components of metabolic syndrome—glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity—and a chronic systemic inflammatory state abetted by the loss of ovarian production of estradiol and the inevitable inroads of aging generate this spectrum of clinical problems. These research insights translate into opportunities for effective care strategies leading to prevention, amelioration, possible correction, and enhanced quality of life. To achieve these goals, updated detailed diagnostic, management, and therapeutic guidelines implemented by a reprogrammed and repurposed “menopause” office visit are described. A triage mechanism—when to refer to other specialists for further care—is emphasized. The previously polarized views of menopausal hormone therapy have narrowed significantly, leading to the construction of a more confident, unified, and wider clinical application. Accordingly, a menopausal hormone therapy program providing maximum benefit and minimum risk, accompanied by an algorithm for enhanced shared decision making, is included.
- menopausal hormone therapy
- midlife prevention strategies