The Knosp Criteria Revisited: 3-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis as a Predictive Tool for Extent of Resection in Complex Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery

Aislyn C. DiRisio, Rui Feng, William H. Shuman, Samantha Platt, Gabrielle Price, Jonathan T. Dullea, Shivee Gilja, Megan R. D'Andrea, Bradley N. Delman, Joshua B. Bederson, Raj K. Shrivastava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Knosp criteria have been the historical standard for predicting cavernous sinus invasion, and therefore extent of surgical resection, of pituitary macroadenomas. Few studies have sought to reappraise the utility of this tool after recent advances in visualization and modeling of tumors in complex endoscopic surgery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our proposed alternative method, using 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging, and whether it can better predict extent of resection in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. METHODS: Patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary macroadenomas at our institution were reviewed. Information was collected on neurological, endocrine, and visual function. Volumetric segmentation was performed using 3D Slicer software. Relationship of tumor volume, clinical features, and Knosp grade on extent of resection was examined. RESULTS: One hundred forty patients were identified who had transsphenoidal resection of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Macroadenomas had a median volume of 6 cm 3 (IQR 3.4-8.7), and 17% had a unilateral Knosp grade of at least 3B. On multiple logistic regression, only smaller log-transformed preoperative tumor volume was independently associated with increased odds of gross total resection (GTR; odds ratio: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.07-0.89, P <.05) when controlling for tumor proliferative status, age, and sex (area under the curve 0.67). The Knosp criteria did not independently predict GTR in this cohort (P >.05, area under the curve 0.46). CONCLUSION: Increasing use of volumetric 3D imaging may better anticipate extent of resection compared with the Knosp grade metric and may have a greater positive predictive value for GTR. More research is needed to validate these findings and implement them using automated methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-185
Number of pages7
JournalNeurosurgery
Volume92
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Cavernous sinus
  • Nonfunctional adenoma
  • Pituitary macroadenoma
  • Transsphenoidal adenectomy
  • Volumetric analysis

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