Objective: Extant epidemiologic data of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains limited, particularly for racial/ethnic populations in the US. The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based retrospective registry of cases of systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, including primary SS in Manhattan, New York. The MLSP was used to provide estimates of the incidence and prevalence of primary SS across major racial/ethnic populations. Methods: MLSP cases were identified from hospitals, rheumatologists, and population databases. Three case definitions were used for primary SS, including physician diagnosis, rheumatologist diagnosis, and modified primary SS criteria. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-adjusted, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess underascertainment of cases. Results: By physician diagnosis, age-adjusted overall incidence and prevalence rates of primary SS among adult Manhattan residents were 3.5 and 13.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Capture-recapture adjustment increased incidence and prevalence rates (4.1 and 14.2 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Based on physician diagnosis, incidence and prevalence rates were approximately 6 times higher among women than men (P < 0.001). Incidence of primary SS was statistically higher among non-Latina Asian women (10.5) and non-Latina white women (6.2) compared with Latina women (3.2). Incidence was also higher among non-Latina Asian women compared with non-Latina black women (3.3). Prevalence of primary SS did not differ by race/ethnicity. Similar trends were observed when more restrictive case definitions were applied. Conclusion: Data from the MLSP revealed disparities among Manhattan residents in primary SS incidence and prevalence by sex and differences in primary SS incidence by race/ethnicity among women. These data also provided epidemiologic estimates for the major racial/ethnic populations in the US.