Purpose: To evaluate the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes used for glaucoma severity classification, which are based on the location of visual field (VF) defects; given the known poor sensitivity of the 24-2 visual field test to early disease and macular damage, we hypothesized that the ICD-10 codes would not accurately reflect the extent of glaucomatous damage. Design: Retrospective validity and reliability analysis. Methods: We evaluated 80 eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Masked reviewers assigned an ICD-10 severity grade based on 24-2 VF. Two additional masked examiners determined the presence of optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural damage in each hemifield and/or central 5 degrees to define an OCT-based equivalent ICD-10 classification. Results: A total of 80 eyes with GON were classified as mild, moderate and advanced in 15, 23, and 42 cases, respectively, based on the 24-2 VF, and in 6, 7, and 67 cases, respectively, based on OCT. The OCT classifications were more severe in 29 of 80 cases (36%). In 33 cases (41.3%), macular damage detected by OCT was missed by the 24-2. In 4 of 80 cases (5%), the VF overestimated the severity, likely due to variability of the 24-2 test. Conclusions: The ICD-10 system relies solely on damage seen on the 24-2 and as provides a 24-2 functional score rather than a “glaucoma” severity score. OCT revealed wide variation of damage across grades, with a significant proportion of the eyes showing macular structural damage missed with the 24-2 VF. Adding OCT information to the ICD-10 system would help it to more accurately reflect the extent of glaucomatous damage.
- Optical coherence tomography