Objective: To review observational human, murine, and interventional trial studies that have examined the gut microbiome in food allergy, and to provide perspective on future investigations in this field. Data Sources: A review of the published literature was performed with PubMed, and clinical studies catalogued at ClinicalTrials.gov were also reviewed. Study Selections: The most recent relevant studies, seminal works, and topical clinical trials were selected. Results: Gut dysbiosis likely precedes the development of food allergy, and the timing of such dysbiosis is critical. Gut microbiota associated with individual food allergies may be distinct. Murine models support the importance of gut microbiota in shaping immune maturation and tolerance. Gut microbiota may affect food allergy susceptibility by modulating type 2 immunity, influencing immune development and tolerance, regulating basophil populations, and promoting intestinal barrier function. Ongoing and future interventional trials of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and fecal microbiota transfer will help translate our understanding of the gut microbiome in food allergy to clinical practice. Future work in this area will include deepening of current research foci, as well as expansion of efforts to include the virome, mycobiome, and interactions between the microbiome, host, and environment. Robust and consistent study designs, multidimensional profiling, and systems biology approaches will enable this future work. Conclusion: By advancing research on the microbiome in food allergy, we can further our understanding of food allergy and derive new approaches for its prevention and therapy.