Immunoglobulin A nephropathy(IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. The working model for the pathogenesis of IgAN involves a multistep process starting from the production of galactose-deficient and polymeric immunoglobulin A-1 (gd-IgA1) that enters systemic circulation from gut-Associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Galactose-deficient IgA are targeted by endogenous IgG, leading to the formation of circulating immune complexes that deposit in the mesangium and resulting in glomerular inflammation. Disease onset and relapses are often associated with gut infections, supporting the hypothesis that the gut plays an important pathogenic role. In the presence of microbial pathogens or food antigens, activated dendritic cells in the gut mucosa induce T cell dependent and independent B cell differentiation into IgA secreting plasma cells. In IgAN patients, this promotes the systemic release of mucosal gd-IgA1. Not all bacterial strains have the same capacity to elicit IgA production, and little is known about the antigen specificity of the pathogenic gd-IgA1. However, efficacy of treatments targeting gut inflammation support a pathogenic link between the bowel immune system and IgAN. Herein, we review the evidence supporting the role of gut inflammation in IgAN pathogenesis.
- Glomerular and tubulointerstitial diseases
- Gut-Associated lymphoid tissue
- IgA nephropathy
- Immunoglobulin A
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Peyer's patches