Eotaxin/CCL-11 is a major chemoattractant that contributes to eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Glucocorticoids inhibit inflammation, but long-time exposure may cause paradoxical adverse effects by augmenting eotaxin/CCL-11production. The aim of this study was to determine if 7,4′-dihydroxyflavone (7,4′-DHF), the eotaxin/CCL11 inhibitor isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, reduces in vitro eotaxin production induced by long-time dexamethasone (Dex) exposure, and if so, to elucidate the mechanisms of this inhibition. Human lung fibroblast-1 cells were used to identify the potency of 7,4′-DHF compared with other compounds from G. uralensis, to compare 7,4′-DHF with Dex on eotaxin production following 24-h short-time culture and 72-h longer-time (LT) culture, and to determine the effects of the 7,4′-DHF on Dex LT culture augmented eotaxin production and molecule mechanisms. 7,4′-DHF was the most potent eotaxin/CCL-11 inhibitor among the ten compounds and provided continued suppression. In contrast to short-time culture, Dex LT culture increased constitutively, and IL-4/TNF-α stimulated eotaxin/CCL11 production by human lung fibroblast-1 cells. This adverse effect was abrogated by 7,4′-DHF co-culture. 7,4′-DHF significantly inhibited Dex LT culture augmentation of p-STAT6 and impaired HDAC2 expression. This study demonstrated that 7,4′-DHF has the ability to consistently suppress eotaxin production and prevent Dex-paradoxical adverse effects on eotaxin production.
- Glycyrrhiza uralensis
- lung fibroblasts