Reproductive success depends on a robust and appropriately timed preovulatory LH surge. The LH surge, in turn, requires ovarian steroid modulation of GnRH neuron activation by the neuropeptide kisspeptin and glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the medial preoptic area (mPOA). Middle-aged females exhibit reduced excitation of GnRH neurons and attenuated LH surges under estrogen-positive feedback conditions, in part, due to increased GABA and decreased glutamate neurotransmission in the mPOA. This study tested the hypothesis that altered kisspeptin regulation by ovarian steroids plays a role in age-related LH surge dysfunction. We demonstrate that middle-aged rats exhibiting delayed and attenuated LH surges have reduced levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the anterior hypothalamus under estrogen-positive feedback conditions. Kisspeptin application directly into the mPOA rescues total LH release and the LH surge amplitude in middle-aged rats and increases glutamate and decreases GABA release to levels seen in the mPOA of young females. Moreover, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 blocks kisspeptin reinstatement of the LH surge. These observations suggest that age-related LH surge dysfunction results, in part, from reduced kisspeptin drive under estrogen-positive feedback conditions and that kisspeptin regulates GnRH/LH release, in part, through modulation of mPOA glutamate and GABA release.