The evolution of endovascular electroencephalography: Historical perspective and future applications

Roberta K. Sefcik, Nicholas L. Opie, Sam E. John, Christopher P. Kellner, J. Mocco, Thomas J. Oxley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Current standard practice requires an invasive approach to the recording of electroencephalography (EEG) for epilepsy surgery, deep brain stimulation (DBS), and brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The development of endovascular techniques offers a minimally invasive route to recording EEG from deep brain structures. This historical perspective aims to describe the technical progress in endovascular EEG by reviewing the first endovascular recordings made using a wire electrode, which was followed by the development of nanowire and catheter recordings and, finally, the most recent progress in stent-electrode recordings. The technical progress in device technology over time and the development of the ability to record chronic intravenous EEG from electrode arrays is described. Future applications for the use of endovascular EEG in the preoperative and operative management of epilepsy surgery are then discussed, followed by the possibility of the technique's future application in minimally invasive operative approaches to DBS and BMI.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberE7
JournalNeurosurgical Focus
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2016


  • Brain-machine interface
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Electroencephalography
  • Endovascular
  • Epilepsy
  • Intraarterial


Dive into the research topics of 'The evolution of endovascular electroencephalography: Historical perspective and future applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this