The Effects of Liver Disease on Surgical Outcomes Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

Charles Lu, Samuel J. White, Ivan B. Ye, Christopher M. Mikhail, Zoe B. Cheung, Samuel K. Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: As the prevalence of chronic liver disease continues to rise in the United States, understanding the effects of liver dysfunction on surgical outcomes has become increasingly important. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of chronic liver disease on 30-day complications following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2337 patients in the 2008–2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database who underwent corrective ASD surgery. Patients with liver disease were identified based on a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Na score ≥10. A univariate analysis was performed to compare 30-day postoperative complications between patients with and without liver disease. A multivariate regression analysis adjusting for differences in baseline patient characteristics was performed to identify complications that were associated with liver disease. Results: Patients with liver disease had a significantly greater incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (6.3% vs. 2.9%; P < 0.001), blood transfusion (34.6% vs. 24.0%; P < 0.001), sepsis (2.2% vs. 0.9%; P = 0.011), prolonged hospitalization (19.0% vs. 8.0%; P < 0.001), as well as any 30-day complication (45.4% vs. 29.4%; P < 0.001). The multivariate regression analysis identified liver disease as a risk factor for prolonged hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–2.84; P < 0.001), pulmonary complications (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.16–2.74; P = 0.009), blood transfusion (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.36–2.05; P < 0.001), and any 30-day complication (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.15–1.77; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The multisystem pathophysiology of liver dysfunction predisposes patients to postoperative complications following ASD surgery. A multidisciplinary approach in surgical planning and preoperative optimization is needed to minimize liver disease−related complications and improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e498-e504
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • ASD
  • Adult spinal deformity
  • Complications
  • Hepatic dysfunction
  • Liver disease
  • MELD-Na


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